Lenton, Tim and Watson, Andrew (2011). “Revolutions that made the Earth”, Oxford University Press, 440p.


Peer reviewed publications:

160 Watson, A. J., Vallis, G. K., and Nikurashin, M. Southern Ocean buoyancy forcing of ocean ventilation and glacial atmospheric CO2. Nature Geosci, doi:10.1038/ngeo2538 (2015).

159  Boland, E.J. D., Shuckburgh, E., Haynes, P. H., Ledwell, J. R., Messias, M.-J., and Watson, A. J. Estimating  a sub-mesoscale diffusivity using a roughness measure applied to a tracer release experiment in the Southern Ocean.  J. Phys. Oceanogr. 45, 1610-1631 (2015).

158 Brown, P.J., Jullion, L., Landschutzer, P., Bakker, D.C.E/. Naverira Garabato, A. C., Meredith, ;M. P., Torres-Valdes, .S., Watson, A.J., Hoppema, M., Loose, B., Jones, E. M., Telszewski, M., Jones, S.D., and Wanninkhof, R.  Carbon dynamics of the Weddell Gyre, Southern Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29,288-306 (2015).

157 Guallart, E. F., Schuster, U., Fajar, N. M., Legge, O., Brown, P. Pelejero, C., Messias, M. J. , Calvo, E,, Watson, A., Rios, A. F.,and Perez, F. F. Trends in anthropogenic CO2 in water masses of the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, 131, 21-32  (2015).

156 Tulloch, R., Ferrari, R. Jahn, O., Klocker, A. LaCasce, J., Ledwell, J. R., Marshall, J. Messias, M.-J., Speer, K., and Watson, A. J.. Direct estimate of lateral eddy diffusivity upstream of Drake Passage., J. Phys. Oceanogr.    44, 2593-616 (2014).

155 Bakker, D.C.E., Pfeil, B., Smith, K., Hankin, S., Olsen, A., Alin, S.R, Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Kozyr, A. Nojiri, Y., O’Brien, K.M., Schuster, U., Telszewski, M. Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Akl, J., Barbero, L., Bates, N.R., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Cai, W.-J, Castle, R.D., Chavez, F.P., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., De Baar, H.J.W., Evans, W., Feely, R.A., Fransson, A., (…), Wanninkhof, R., and Watson, A.J. An update to the surface ocean CO2 atlas (SOCAT version 2)  Earth System Science Data 6, 69-90 (2014).

154 Schuster, U., Watson, A.J., Bakker, D.C.E and others. Measurements of total alkalinity and inorganic dissolved carbon in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Southern Ocean between 2008 and 2010  Earth System Science Data 6, 175-183, (2014).

153 Sheen, K. L., Naveira Garabato, A. C., Brearley,, J. A., Meredith, M. P., Polzin, K. L., Smeed, D. A., Forryvan, A. King, B. A., Sallee, J. B.,  St. Laurent, L., Ledwell, J. R., Thurnherr, A. M., Toole, J. M., Waterman, S. N., and Watson, A. J.  Eddy-induced variability in Southern Ocean abyssal mixing on climatic timescales.  Nature Geosci, 7, 577-582, (2014).

152 Watson, A. J., Meredith, M. P., and Marshall, J. M. The Southern Ocean, carbon and climate. Phil.  Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 372, art. N. 20130057 (2014)

151 Mills, B., Lenton, T. M. and Watson, A. J. Proterozoic oxygen rise linked to shift between seafloor and terrestrial weathering.  PNAS 111 ,  9073-9078 (2014)

150 Watson, A. J., Ledwell, J. R., Messias, M.-J., King, B. A., Mackay, N. M., Meredith, M. P., Mills, B., and Garabato, A. C. N., Rapid cross-density mixing at mid-depths in Drake Passage measured by tracer release, Nature 501, 408-411 (2013)

149 Rushby, A.J., Claire, M. W., Osborn, H., and Watson, A. J. Habitable lifetimes of exoplanets around main sequence stars. Astrobiology, 13, 833-849 (2013).  DOI: 10.1089/ast.2012.0938.

148 Sheen,K. L., Brearley, J. A., Naveira Garabato, A.C., Smeed, D. A., Waterman, S., Ledwell, J. R., Meredith, M. P., Smeed, D., St. Laurent, L., Thurnherr, A. M.,  Toole, J. M. and. Watson, A. J. (2013). Rates and mechanisms of turbulent dissipation and  mixing in the Southern Ocean: Results from the Diapycnal andIsopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES). J. Geophys. Res Oceans. DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20217.

147 Watson, AJ and Lovelock, JE (2013): the dependence of flame spread and probability of ignition on atmospheric oxygen concentration: an experimental investigation. Pages 273-287 in Fire Phenomena and the Earth System: an interdisciplinary guide to fire science, Ed Belcher, C. M.  Wiley Interscience. 368p.

146 Schuster, U., McKinley, G. A., Bates, N., Chevallier, F., Doney, S. C., Fay, A. R., González-Dávila, M., Gruber, N., Jones, S., Krijnen, J., Landschützer, P., Lefèvre, N., Manizza, M., Mathis, J., Metzl, N., Olsen, A., Rios, A. F., Rödenbeck, C., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Takahashi, T., Wanninkhof, R., and Watson, A. J. (2013).  “An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea–air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009, Biogeosciences, 10, 607-627, doi:10.5194/bg-10-607-2013

145 Laurent, L.S., Garabato, A.C.N, Ledwell, J.R., Thurnherr, A.M., Toole, J.M. , and Watson, A.J. (2012).  “Turbulence and diapycnal mixing in Drake Passage”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 2135-2142, DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-027.1

144 Goldblatt, C. and A. J. Watson (2012). “The runaway greenhouse: Implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 370(1974): 4197-4216.

143 Rye, C. D., Messias, M. J.  Ledwell, J. R. Watson, A. J.  Brousseau, A.  and King, B. A. (2012). “Diapycnal diffusivities from a tracer release experiment in the deep sea, integrated over 13 years.” Geophysical Research Letters 39(4), DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050294

142 Jones, E. M., Bakker, D. C. E.  Venables, H. J.  and Watson, A. J. (2012). “Dynamic seasonal cycling of inorganic carbon downstream of South Georgia, Southern Ocean.” Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 59-60: 25-35.

141 Clark, J. R., S. J. Daines, T. M. Lenton, A. J. Watson and H. T. P. Williams (2011). “Individual-based modelling of adaptation in marine microbial populations using genetically defined physiological parameters.” Ecological Modelling 222(23-24): 3823-3837.

140 Mills, B., Watson, A. J.  Goldblatt, C.., Boyle, R. and Lenton , T. M. (2011). “Timing of Neoproterozoic glaciations linked to transport-limited global weathering.” Nature Geoscience 4(12): 861-864.

139 Watson, A. J., Metzl, N. and Schuster, U. (2011).  Monitoring and interpreting the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Series A. 369, 1997-2008.

138 Boyle, R. A, Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J. (2011). Symbiotic physiology promotes homeostasis in Daisyworld. J. Theor. Biol.274, 170-182.

137 De Boer, A. M., Watson, A. .J., Edwards, N. R., and Oliver, K. I. C. (2010). A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump. Climate of the past 6, 827-841.

136 Jones, E. M., Bakker D.C. E., Venables, H. J., Whitehouse, M. J., Korb, R. E., and Watson, A. J., (2010). Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt. Tellus B62, 621-635.

135 Brown, P. J., Bakker, D. C. E., Schuster, U., and Watson, A. J (2010). Anthropogenic carbon accumulation in the subtropical North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 115 art no. C04016

134 De Boer, A.M., Gnanadesikan, A., Edwards, N. R., and Watson, A. J. (2010). Meridional density gradients do not control the Atlantic Overturning Circulation., J. Phys. Oceanogr 40, 368-380.

133 Watson, A. J.,  Schuster, U., Bakker, D. C. E., Bates, N. R., Corbiere, A., Gonzalez-Davila. M., Friedrich, T., Hauck, J., Heinze, C.,  Johannessen, T., Koertzinger, A., Metzl, N.,  Olafsson, J., Oschlies, A.,  Olsen, A., Padin, X. A., Pfeil, B., Rios, A., F., Santana-Casiano, J-M.,  Steinhoff, T., Telszewski, M., Wallace, D. W. R., and Wanninkhof. R. (2009). Tracking the variable North Atlantic sink for atmospheric CO2. . Science 326, 1391-1393.

132 Goldblatt, C., Claire, M.W., Lenton, T. M., Matthews, A. J., Watson, A. J., and Zanhle, K. J.(2009). Nitrogen-enhanced greenhouse warming on the early Earth. Nature Geoscience 2, 891-896.

131 Telszewski, M., Chazottes, A., Schuster U., Watson AJ.,. Moulin C., Bakker, DCE, Olsen A, Johannessen T., Omar A., Rios, A. F., Pérez, F. Körtzinger A.,  Steinhoff T., Wallace DWR, González-Dávila, M., Santana-Casiano M., Lüger, H., and Wanninkhof R., Estimating monthly pCO2 distribution in the North Atlantic using self-organizing neural network. Biogeosciences 6 1405 – 1431 (2009)

130 Oliver, K. I. C., Eldevik, T., Stevens, D. P. and Watson, A. J. (2009).  A Greenland Sea perspective on the dynamics of post-convective eddies, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 38, 2755-2771.

129 Takahashi. T., Sutherland, S.C., Wanninkhof, R., Sweeney, C., Feely, R.A., Chipman, D.W., Burke Hales, B., Friederich, G., Chavez, F., Watson, A.J., Bakker, D.C.E., Schuster, U., Metzl, N., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., Ishii, M., Midorikawa, T., Sabine, C., Hoppema, J.M.J., Olafsson, J., Arnarson, T.S., Tilbrook, B., Johannessen, T., Olsen, A., Bellerby, R., Baar, H.J.W. de, Nojiri, Y., Wong, C.S., Delille, B. (2009). Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea-air CO2 flux over the global oceans.  Deep-Sea Research II, 56, 554-577.

128 Schuster U., Watson, A. J., Bates N., Corbiere, A., Gonzalez-Davila, M., Metzl, N., Pierrot D., Santana-Casiano M., (2009). Trends in North Atlantic sea surface fCO2 from 1990 to 2006. Deep Sea Research II. 56, 620-629

127 Goldblatt, C., Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J. (2009). An evaluation of the long-wave radiative transfer code used in the Met Office Unified Model. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 135, 619-633.

126 Manizza, M., LeQuere, C., Watson, A. J. and Buitenhuis, E. T.(2008). Ocean biogeochemical response to phytoplankton-light feedback in a global model” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C10010, doi:10.1029/2007JC004478.

125 Hardman-Mountford NJ, Moore G , Bakker DCE, Watson AJ, Schuster U,  Barciela R, Hines A, Moncoiffe G, Brown J, Dye S,  Blackford J, Somerfield PJ, Holt J, Hydes DJ, Aiken J (2008). An operational monitoring system to provide indicators of CO2-related variables in the ocean. ICES J. Marine Science, 65, 1498-1503

124  Watson, A. J., Boyd, P. W., Turner, S. M., and Liss, P. S. (2008) Designing the next  generation of ocean iron fertilization experiments. Mar. Ecol Progess. Series. 364: 303-309, 2008 doi: 10.3354/meps07552

123  Jickells, T. D., Liss, P. S., Broadgate W., Turner, S., Kettle, A. J., Read, J., Baker, J., Cardenas, L. M., Carse, F., Hamren-Larssen, M., Spokes, L., Steinke, M., Thompson, A., Watson, A., Archer, S. D., Bellerby, R. G. J., Law, C. S., Nightingale, P. D., Liddicoat, M. L., Widdicombe, C. E., Bowie, A., Gilpin, L. C. Moncoiffe, G. Savidge, G., Preston, T., Hadziabdic, P., Frost, T., Upstill-Goddard, R., Pedros-Alio, C., Simo, R., Jackson, A., Allen, A., DeGrandpre, M. D. (2008). A Lagrangian biogeochemical study of an eddy in the Northeast Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 76, 366-398.

122 Marnela, M., Rudels, B.,  Olsson, K. A., Anderson, L. G., Jeansson, E., Torres, D. J., Messias, M.-J. Swift, J., Watson, A. J., (2008). Transports of Nordic Seas water masses and excess SF6 through Fram Strait to the Arctic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.06.004

121 Messias, M.-J., Watson, A.J., Johannessen, T., Oliver, K.I.C., Olsson, K.A., Fogelqvist, E., Olafsson, J., Bacon, S., Balle, J., Bergman, N., Budéus, G., Danielsen, M., Gascard, J.-C., Jeansson, E., Olafsdottir, S.R., Simonsen, K., Tanhua, T., Van Scoy, K., Ledwell, J.R., (2008). The Greenland Sea Tracer Experiment 1996-2002: horizontal mixing and transport of Greenland Sea Intermediate Water, Progress in Oceanography,78, 85-105.  doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.06.005

120 Buesseler K. O, Doney S. C., Karl D. M., Boyd P. W., Caldeira K., Chai F., Coale K. H.,  de Baar H. J. W., Falkowski P. G., Johnson K. S., Lampitt R. S., Michaels A. F., Naqvi S. W. A., Smetacek V., Takeda S., Watson A. J. (2008). Ocean iron fertilization – Moving forward in a sea of uncertainty. Science 319, p320

119 Watson, AJ. (2008). Certainty and uncertainty in climate change predictions: what use are climate models? Environmental & Resource Economics  39, 37-44.

118 Watson, A. J., (2008). Implications of an anthropic model of evolution for emergence of complex life and intelligence. Astrobiology Journal  8, 175-185. DOI 10.1089/ast.2006.0115

117 Bakker, D. C. E.,  Nielsdottir, M. C., Morris, P. J., Venables, H. J., and Watson, A. J. (2007).  The island mass effect and biological carbon uptake for the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago. Deep Sea Res.II 54, 2174-2190

116 Caldeira K, Archer D, Barry J.P., Bellerby R. G. J., Brewer P. G. , Cao L., Dickson A. G., Doney S. C. , Elderfield H., Fabry V. J., Feely R. A. , Gattuso J. P., Haugan P. M., Hoegh-Guldberg O., Jain A. K., Kleypas J. A., Langdon C., Orr J. C,, Ridgwell A., Sabine C. L, Seibel B. A., Shirayama Y., Turley C., Watson A. J., Zeebe R. E. (2007). Comment on “Modern-age buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity” by Hugo A. Loaiciga Geophys. Res. Lett.,   34   Article Number: L18608

115 Schuster, U., and Watson, A. J. (2007).  A variable and decreasing sink for atmospheric CO2 in the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. 112, C11006, doi:10.1029/2006JC003941

114 Garabato A.C. N., Stevens D. P.,  Watson A. J., and Roether, W. (2007). Short-circuiting of the overturning circulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Nature, 447 194-197

113 Goldblatt C, Lenton T.M., and Watson,  A. J. (2007). Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the great oxidation: Implications for life detection,  Astrobiology 7, 483

112 Boyd, P. W., Jickells, T., Law, C. S., Blain, S., Boyle, E. A., Buessler, K. O., Coale, K. H., Cullen, J. J., De Baar, H. J. W>, Follows, M., Harvey, M., Lancelot, C., Levasseur, M., Pollard, R., Rivkin, R. B., Sarmiento, J. Schoemann, V., Smetacek, V., Takeda, S., Tsuda, A., Turner, S., and Watson, A. J. (2007). Mesoscale iron-enrichment experiments 1993-2005: synthesis and future directions. Science 315, 612-617.

111 Ridgwell, A., Hargreaves, J. C., Edwards, N. R., Annan, J. D., Lenton, T. M., Marsh, R. Yool, A., and Watson, A. Marine geochemical data assimilation in an efficient Earth System model of global biogeochemical cycling. Biogeosciences 4, 1-18 (2007).

110  Bakker, D.C. E., Boyd, P. W., Abraham, E. R., Charette, M. A., Gall, M. P., Hall, J. A., Law, C. S., Nodder, S. D., Safi, K. Singleton, D. J., Tenneberger, K., Trull, T. W., Waite, A. M., Watson, A. J., and Zeldis, J. Matching carbon pools and fluxes for the Stouerhn Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE). Deep Sea Res. I  53, 1941-1960. (2006).

  1. Goldblatt, C., Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J. (2006). Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation. Nature 443, 683-686.

108 Watson, A. J., and Naveira-Garabato, A. C. (2006) The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change. Tellus 58 B, 73-87.

107 Lefèvre, N., Watson, A. J. and Watson A. R. (2005). A comparison of multiple regression and neural network techniques for mapping in situ pCO2 data  Tellus 57B, 375-384.

106 Le Quéré, C., S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, E.T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L.C. da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K.E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R.B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A.J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, (2005). Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models., Global Change Biology. 11, 2016-2040

105 Oliver, K. I. C., Watson, A., J., and Stevens, D. P. S. (2005) Can limited ocean mixing buffer rapid climate change?, Tellus 57A, 676-690

104 Ríos, A. F. Pérez, F. F., Álvarez,  A. A., , Mintrop, L.,  González-Dávila, M., Santana Casianoc, J. M., Lefèvre, N., and Watson, A. J. (2005). Seasonal sea-surface carbon dioxide in the Azores area, Mar. Chem 96, 35-51.

103 Bozec, Y., Bakker D.C.E., Hartmann C., Thomas H., Bellerby R.G.J., Nightingale P.D., Riebesell U., Watson A.J., and de Baar H.J.W. (2005) The CO2 system in a Redfield context during an iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Chem. , doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2004.08.004, 95:89-105.

102 Wolff, E. W. W.  Kull, C., Chappellaz, J., Fischer, H.,  Miller, H., , Stocker, T. F., Watson, A. J., Flower, B.,  Joos, F., Köhler, P.,  Matsumoto, K., Monnin, E.,  Mudelsee, M., Paillard, D., and Shackleton, N. J. (2005).  Modelling past atmospheric CO2: results of a challenge. EOS, Trnasactions of the American Geophysical Union, 86, 341-345.

101 Bakker, D. C. E., Bozec, Y., Nightingale, P. D., Goldson, L. Messias, M.-J., de Baar, H. J. W.,Liddicoat, M. I., Skjelvan, I., Strass, V., and Watson, A. J. (2005). Iron and mixing affect biological carbon uptake in SOIREE and EisenEx, two Southern Ocean iron fertilisation experiments. Deep Sea Res. I, 52, 1001-1019.

100 Manizza M., Le Quéré C., Watson A. J., and Buitenhuis, E. J. (2005). Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model. Geophys Res Lett 32: art. no. L05603.

99  Olsson K. A., Jeansson E., Anderson L. G., Hansen B. , Eldevik T., Kristiansen R., Messias M.-J., Johannessen T.,  and Watson A. J. (2005). Intermediate water from the Greenland Sea in the Faroe Bank Channel: spreading of released sulphur hexafluoride. Deep-Sea Res. Pt I, 52: 279-294.

98  Naveira-Garabato, A. C., Oliver, K. I., Watson, A. J., and Messias, M.-J. (2004). Turbulent diapycnal mixing in the Nordic Seas. J. Geophys. Res-oceans 109 art no. C12010

97  Liss PS, Chuck AL, Turner SM, Watson AJ (2004). Air-sea gas exchange in Antarctic waters. Antarctic Science 16: 517-529.

96  Watson, A. J., (2004). Gaia and observer self-selection. In Scientists debate Gaia: the next century,  eds Schneider, S. H., Miller, J. R., Crist, E., and Boston, P. J.  pp201-208. MIT press, Cambridge,  Mass, USA.

95  Bergman, N.M., Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J. (2004). A new biogeochemical Earth system model for the Phanerozoic Eon. In Scientists debate Gaia: the next century,  eds Schneider, S. H., Miller, J. R., Crist, E., and Boston, P. J.  pp101-113. MIT press, Cambridge, Mass, USA.

94  Bergman, N. M., Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J. (2004). COPSE: a new model of biogechemical cycling over Phanerozoic time. Am. J. Sci 304,397-437.

93  Lefèvre, N., A. J. Watson, A. Olsen, A. F. Ríos, F. F. Pérez, and T. Johannessen (2004), A decrease in the sink for atmospheric CO2 in the North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07306, doi:10.1029/2003GL018957

92  Lenton, TM, and. Watson, AJ. (2004) Biotic enhancement of weathering, atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Neroproterozoic. Geophys. Res. Lett, 31, 10.1029/2003GL018802.

91  Ridgwell, A. J., Watson, A. J., Maslin, M. A., and Kaplan, J. O., (2003). Implications of coral reef buildup for the controls on atmospheric CO2 since the last glacial maximum. Paleoceanography 1083

  1. Law, CS, Abraham, ER, Watson, AJ, and Liddicoat, MI (2003).Vertical eddy diffusion and nutrient supply to the surface mixed layer in the Antarctic Circumpolar current. J. Geophys. Res 108 (C8), art. no. 28.

89  Watson, A. J. and Orr, J. C (2003). Carbon dioxide fluxes in the global ocean . pp123-143 in “Ocean Biogeochemistry : a JGOFS synthesis ” ed Fasham, MJR. Springer-Verlag, Heidleberg, Germany.

88  Ridgwell, A. J., Watson, A., J., and Archer, D. (2002). Modelling the response of the oceanic Si Cycle to perturbation, and consequences for atmospheric CO2. Glob.  Biogeochem. Cyc 16, art. no. 1071.

87  Ridgwell, A. J., and Watson, A. J., (2002). Feedback between aeolian dust, climate and atmospheric CO2 in glacial time. Paleoceanography 17: art. no. 1059.

86  Ridgwell, A. J., Maslin, M. A. & Watson, A. J., (2002) Reduced effectiveness of terrestrial carbon sequestration due to an antagonistic response of ocean productivity, Geophys.  Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014304.

85  Gascard, J.-C., Watson, A. J., Messias, M.-J., Olson, K. A., Johannessen, T., and Simonsen, K. (2002). Long –lived vortices as a mode of deep ventilation in the Greenland Sea.  Nature 416, 525-527.

84  Watson, A. J. (2001) Iron limitation in the oceans. in “The biogeochemistry of iron in Seawater”, Ed Turner, D. R., and Hunter, K. A.  John Wiley and sons, Chichester, UK, pp 9-39.

83  Bakker, D. C. E., Watson, A. J. and Law, C. S. (2001). Southern Ocean iron enrichment promotes inorganic carbon drawdown. Deep Sea Research  part II, 48, 2483-2507

82  Meredith, M. P., Watson, A. J., and Van Scoy, K. A. (2001). Chlorofluorocarbon-derived formation rates of the deep and bottom waters of the Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans, 106, (C2), 2899-2919.

81 Law, C. S., and Watson, A. J. (2001). Determination of Persian Gulf Water transport and oxygen utilization rates using SF¬6 as a novel transient tracer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 815-818.

80  Law, C. S.,  Martin, A. P., Liddicoat, M. I., Watson, A. J., Richards, K. J., and Woodward, E. M. S. (2001). A lagrangian SF6 tracer study of an antcyclonic eddy in the North Atlantic; patch evolution, vertical mixing and nitrate supply to the mixed layer. Deep Sea Research  part II 48, 705-724.

79  Boyd P. W., Watson, A. J., Law, C.S., Abraham, E. R., Trull, T., Murdoch R., Bakker, D. C. E., Bowie A. R., Buesseler, K. O., Chang, H., Charette, M., Croot, P., Downing, K., Frew, R., Gall, M., Hadfield, M., Hall, J., Harvey M,., Jameson, G., LaRoche, J., Liddicoat, M., Ling, R., Maldonado, M. T., McKay, R. M., Nodder, S., Pickmere, S., Pridmore, R., Rintoul, S., Safi, K., Sutton, P., Strzepek, R., Tanneberger, K., Turner, S., Waite, A., and Zeldis, J. (2000). A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature, 407, 695-702.

78  Watson, A.J., Bakker, D.C.E., Ridgwell, A.J., Boyd, P.W., and Law, C.S. (2000). Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2. Nature, 407, 730-733.

77  Meredith MP, Locarnini RA, Van Scoy KA, Watson AJ, Heywood KJ, King BA (2000) On the sources of Weddell Gyre Antarctic Bottom Water. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 105(C1) 1093-1104

76  Watson, A. J., and Ledwell, J. R. (2000). Oceanographic tracer release experiments using sulphur hexafluoride. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 105 (C6), 14325- 14337.

75  Nightingale, P. D., Malin, G., Law, C. S., Watson, A. J., Liss, P. S., Liddicoat, M. I., and Upstill-Goddard, R C. (2000). In situ evaluation of air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using novel conservative and volatile tracers. Glob. Biogeochem. Cyc.14, 373-387.

74  Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J. (2000). Redfield revisited: 1. Regulation of nitrate, phosphate and oxygen in the ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles.14, 225-248.

73  Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J.(2000). Redfield revisited: II. What regulates the oxygen content of the atmosphere? Global Biogechem Cyc. 14, 249-268.

72  Watson, A. J. (1999).  Iron in the oceans: influences, on biology, geochemistry and climate.  Progress in Environmental Science. 1, 345-370

71  Watson, A. J., Messias, M.-J., Fogelqvist, E.,Van Scoy, K. A., Johannessen, T., Oliver, K. I. C., Stevens, D. P., Rey, F., Tanhua, T., Olsson, K. A. Carse, F., Simonsen, K. Ledwell , J. R. Jansen, , E., Cooper, D. J., Kruepke, J. A.  and E. Guilyardi (1999). Mixing and convection in the Greenland sea from a tracer release. Nature, 401, 902-904.

70  Lefèvre, N., and Watson, A.  J. (1999). Modelling the geochemical cycle of iron in the oceans and its impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 13, 727-736.

69  Lefèvre, N. Watson, A. J., Cooper, D. J., Weiss, R. F., Takahashi, T.,  and Sutherland, S. (1999). Assessing the seasonality of the oceanic sink for CO2  in the Northern hemisphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 273-286.

68  Ridgwell, A. J., Watson, A. J., and Raymo, M. E. (1999) Is the spectral signature of the 100 kyr glacial cycle consistent with a Milankovitch origin? Paleoceanography, 14, 437-440.

67  Watson, A.  J., and Lefèvre, N., (1999). The sensitivity of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations to input of iron to the oceans. Tellus, 51B, 453-460.

66  Watson, A. J. (1999). Co-evolution of the earth’s environment and life; Goldilocks, Gaia and the anthropic principle. in: Craig, G. Y., and Hull, J. H. (eds) “James Hutton – present and future” Geological Society, London, Special Publications 150; 75-88.

65  Haine, T. W. N., Watson, A. J., Liddicoat, M. I., and Dickson, R. R. (1998). The flow of Antarctic Bottom Water to the Southwest Indian Ocean estimated using CFCs. J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C12), 27637-27653.

64  Law, C. S., Watson, A. J., Liddicoat, M. I., and Stanton, T. (1998). Sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer of biogeochemical and physical processes in an open-ocean iron fertilisation experiment.  Deep Sea Res. II, 45, 977-994.

63  Stanton, T. P., Law, C. S., and Watson, A. J. (1998). Physical evolution of the IRONEX-I open ocean tracer patch, Deep Sea Res.II, 45, 947-975.

62  Ledwell, J. R., Watson, A. J., and Law, C. S. (1998). Mixing of a tracer in the pycnocline. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 21,499 – 21,529.

61  Cooper, D. J., Watson, A. J., and Ling, R. D. (1998). Variation of PCO2 along a North Atlantic shipping route (UK to Caribbean): a year of automated observations. Mar. Chem.,  60, 147-164.

60  Lefèvre, N., Moore, G. , Aiken, J., Watson, A., Cooper, D., and Ling, R. (1998). Variability of pCO2 in the tropical Atlantic in 1995. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C3), 5623-5634.

59  Watson, A. J. and Liss, P. S. (1998). Interactions between the marine biota and climate via the carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles.  Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 353, 41-51.

58  Watson, A. J. (1997). Volcanic iron, CO2 , ocean productivity and climate. Nature, 385, 587-588.

57  Meredith, M., P., Van Scoy, K. A., Watson, A. J., and Locarnini, R. A. (1996) On the use of carbon tetrachloride as a transient tracer of Weddell Sea deep and bottom water. Geophys. Res. Lett .23, 2943-2946.

56  Cooper, D. J., Watson, A. J., and P. D. Nightingale (1996). Large decrease in ocean-surface CO2 fugacity in response to in-situ iron fertilization. Nature 383, 511-513.

55  Dauby, P., Bale, T., Bloomer, N., Canon, C., Norro, A.,Ling, R. D., Robertson, J. E., Simon, A., Théate, J-M., Watson, A. J., and Frankignoulle, M. (1995). Particle fluxes over a Mediterranean seagrass bed: a one-year case study. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 126, 233-246.

54  Haine, T. W. N., Watson, A. J. and Liddicoat, M. I. (1995). Chlorofluorocarbon-113 in the Northeast Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C6) 10745-10753.

53  Van Scoy, K.A., Morris, K., Robertson, J. E., and Watson, A. J. (1995). Thermal skin effect and the air/sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate.  Global Biogeochemical cycles. 9, 253-262.

52  Robertson, J. E., and Watson, A. J. (1995). A summertime sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean between 88°W and 80°E. Deep Sea Research.II, 42,1081-1091.

51  Watson, A. J., Nightingale, P. D., and Cooper, D. J., (1995). Modelling atmosphere-ocean CO2 transfer. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.  B 348, 125-132.

50  Watson, A. J. (1995). Are upwelling areas sources or sinks of CO2? p321-336 in  Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern processes and Ancient Records, Ed: Summerhayes, C. P., Emies, K.-C., Angel, M. V., and Zeitzschel, B. John WIley and Sons, Chichester, U. K.

49  Law, C. S., Watson, A. J., and Liddicoat, M. I. (1994). Automated vacuum analysis of sulphur hexafluoride in seawater: Derivation of the atmospheric trend (1970-1993) and potential as a transient tracer.  Mar. Chem. 48, 57-69.

48  Martin, J. H., Coale, K. H., Johnson, K. S., Fitzwater, S. E., Gordon, R. M., Tanner, S. J., Hunter, C. N., Elrod, V. A., Nowickl, J. L., Coley, T. L., Barber, R. T., Lindley, S., Watson, A. J., Van Scoy, K. A., Law, C. S., Liddicoat, M. I., Ling, R., Stanton, T., Stockel, J., Collins, C., Anderson, A., Bidigare, R., Ondrusek, M., Latasa, ., M., Millero, F. J., Lee, K., Yao, W., Zhang, J. Z., Friederich, G., Sakamoto, C., Chavez, F., Buck, K., Kolber, Z., Greene, R., Falkowski, P., Chisholm, S. W., Hoge, F., Swift, R., Yngel., J., Turner, S., Nightingale, P., Hatton, A., Liss, P., and Tindale, N. W. (1994). Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 371, 123-129.

47  Watson, A. J.,  Law, C. S., Van Scoy, K.,  Millero, F. J., Yao, W., Friederich, G. E.,  Liddicoat, M. I., Wanninkhof,  R.H.,  Barber, R. T.,  and Coale, K. H. (1994). Minimal effect of iron fertilization on sea-surface carbon dioxide concentrations. Nature, 371, 143-145.

46  Robertson, J. E., Robinson, C., Turner, D. R., Holligan, P., Watson, A. J., Boyd, P., Fernandez, E., and Finch, M. (1994). The impact of a coccolithophore bloom on oceanic carbon uptake in the N.E. Atlantic during summer 1991.  Deep Sea Research (1), 41, 297 – 314.

45  Liss, P. S., Watson, A. J., Liddicoat, M. I., Malin, G., Nightingale, P. D., Turner, S. M., and Upstill-Goddard, R. C. (1993). Trace gases and air-sea exchange. pp 153-164 in Understanding the North Sea System, eds Charnock, H., Dyer, K. R., Huthnance, J. M., Liss, P. S., Simpson, J. H., and Tett, P. B. (Chapman and Hall, London). Also published in Phil Trans Roy Soc., 343, 531-541.

44  Watson, A. J. (1993). Air-sea exchange and the the global carbon cycle. pp 397-411 in The global carbon cycle (ed Heimann, M.) Springer-Verlag.

43  Robertson, J. E., and Watson, A. J. (1993). Estimation of primary production by observation of changes in the mesoscale carbon dioxide field  ICES Marine Science Symposia, 197, 207-214.

42  Upstill-Goddard, R. C., Watson, A. J., and Liss P. S. (1993) The gas transfer velocity-wind speed relationship at Siblyback Lake. A reply to comments by Kwan and Taylor. Tellus 45B, 299-300.

41  Ledwell, J. R., Watson, A. J., and Law, C. S. (1993). Evidence of slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open ocean tracer release experiment. Nature. 364, 701-703.

40  Robertson, J. E., Watson, A. J., Langdon, C., Ling, R. D., and J. Wood (1993). Diurnal variation in surface pCO2 and O2 at 60N 20W in the North Atlantic. Deep Sea Res. 40, 409 – 423.

39  Watson, A. J., Robertson, J. E. and R. D. Ling (1992). Air-sea exchange of CO2 and its relation to primary production , pp 249-257 in Interactions of C,N,P and S biogeochemical cycles and Global Change  (ed Wollast, R. Mackenzie, F. T. and Chou, L.,) Springer Verlag.

38  Robertson, J.E., and Watson, A. J. (1992) Thermal skin effect of the surface ocean and its implications for CO2 uptake. Nature 358, 738-740.

37  Savidge, G., Turner, D. R., Burkill, P. H., Watson, A. J., Angel, M. V., Pingree, R. D., Leach, H. and K J. Richards (1992). The BOFS 1990 Spring Bloom experiment: temporal evolution and spatial variability of the hydrographic field. Prog. Oceanogr. 29, 235-281.

36  Taylor, A. H., Watson, A. J. and J. E. Robertson (1992). The influence of the spring phytoplankton bloom on carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations in the surface waters of the North-East Atlantic during 1989. Deep Sea Research 39, 137-157

35  Watson, A. J.,P. S. Liss, and R. A. Duce (1992). Design of a small- scale iron fertilisation experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 36, 1960-1965.

34  Watson, A. J. and L. Maddock (1991) A geophysiological model for glacial-interglacial oscillations in the carbon and phosphorus cycles, pp240-246  in Scientists on Gaia: Proceedings of the AGU Chapman conference on the Gaia hypothesis.(eds Schneider, S. H. and Boston, P. J.)  MIT press, Cambridge, Ma.

33  Taylor, A. H., Watson, A. J., Ainsworth, M., Robertson, J. E and D. R. Turner (1991). A modelling investigation of the role of phytoplankton in the balance of carbon at the surface of the North Atlantic, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 5, 151-171.

32  Upstill-Goddard, R. C., Watson, A. J., Wood J., and M. I. Liddicoat (1991). Sulphur hexafluoride and Helium-3 as seawater tracers: deployment techniques and a method for the continuous underway analysis of sulphur hexafluoride. Analytica Chimica Acta 249 (2), 555-562.

31  Wanninkhof, R., Ledwell, J. R. and A. J. Watson (1991).  Analysis of sulfur hexafluoride in seawater. J. Geophys. Res. 96 (C5), 8733-8740.

30  Ledwell, J. R., Watson, A. J., Doherty K. W. and W. M. Berelson (1991). Integrating samplers for the deep sea, J. Geophys. Res. 96 (C5), 8727-8732.

29  Watson, A. J., Ledwell, J. R. and S. C. Sutherland (1991). The Santa Monica Basin Tracer Experiment: comparison of release methods and performance of perfluorodecalin and sulfur hexafluoride. J. Geophys. Res. 96 (C5), 8719-8725.

28  Ledwell, J. R. and A. J. Watson (1991). The Santa Monica Basin tracer experiment: a study of diapycnal and isopycnal mixing. J. Geophys. Res. 96 (C5), 8695-8718.

27  Watson, A. J., Robinson, C., Robertson, J. E., Williams, P. J. leB. and M. J. R. Fasham (1991). Spatial variability in the sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in the North Atlantic. Nature 350, 50-53.

26  Watson, A. J., Upstill-Goddard R. C. and P. S. Liss (1991). Air- sea gas exchange in rough and stormy seas measured by a dual- tracer technique. Nature 349, 145-147.

25  Upstill-Goddard, R. C., Watson, A. J., Liss P. S. and M. I. Liddicoat (1990). Gas transfer velocities in lakes measured with SF6.  Tellus 42B, 364-377.

24  Dickson, R. R., Gmitrowicz, E. M. and A. J. Watson (1990). Deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic. Nature 344, 848-850.

23  Watts, S. F., Brimblecombe P. B. and A. J. Watson (1990). Methane sulphonic acid, dimethyl sulphoxide and dimethyl sulphone in aerosols. Atmospheric Environment 24, 353-359.

22  Watson, A. J. (1988). The Gaia hypothesis, mechanisms and tests. in Gaia, the thesis, the mechanisms, and the implications, eds P. Bunyard and E. Goldsmith. Wadebridge Ecological centre, Camelford, Cornwall, pp 66-75.

21  Ledwell J. R. and A. J. Watson (1988). The use of deliberately released tracers for the study of diapycnal mixing in the ocean, in Small scale turbulence and mixing in the ocean; proc. 19th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, eds J. C. J. Nihoul and B. M. Jarmart. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 11-20.

20  Watson, A. J. (1988). Coming to grips with the variability of surface water chemistry, A. J. Watson, Applied Geochemistry 3, 105.

19  Watson, A. J., and J. R. Ledwell (1988). Purposefully released tracers. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond.,  A 325, 189-200.

  1. Watts, S. F., Watson, A. J and P. Brimblecombe (1987). Measurements of the aerosol concentrations of methanesulphonic acid, di-methyl sulphoxide and dimethyl sulphone in the marine atmosphere of the British Isles. Atmospheric Environment, 21, 2667-2672.

17  Watson, A. J., Liddicoat, M. I. and J. R. Ledwell (1987). Perfluorodecalin and sulphur hexafluoride as purposeful marine tracers: some deployment and analysis techniques. Deep Sea Research., 34, 19-31.

16  Ledwell, J. R., Watson, A. J. and W. S. Broecker (1986). A deliberate tracer experiment in the Santa Monica Basin. Nature 323, 322-324.

15  Watson, A. J. and M. I. Liddicoat (1985). Recent history of atmospheric trace gases deduced from measurements in the deep sea: application to sulphur hexafluoride and carbon tetrachloride.  Atmospheric Environment, 19, 1477-1484.

14  Watson, A. J. and M. Whitfield (1985). Composition of particles in the global ocean. Deep Sea Research, 32, 1023-1039.

13  Watson, A. J., Donahue T. M. and W. R. Kuhn (1984). Temperatures in a runaway greenhouse on the prehistoric Venus: implications for water loss. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 68, 1- 6.

12  Watson, A. J. and J. E. Lovelock (1983). Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld. Tellus 35B, 284-289.

11  Whitfield, M. and A. J. Watson (1983). The influence of biomineralization on the composition of seawater. In  Biomineralization and biological metal accumulation Eds., P. Westbroek and E. W. de Jong, D. Reidel Pub. Co., Amsterdam.

10  Lovelock, J. E. and A. J. Watson (1982). The regulation of carbon dioxide and climate: Gaia or geochemistry? Planet Space Sci., 30 ,795-802.

9   Hunten, D. M and A. J. Watson (1982). Stability of Pluto’s atmosphere. Icarus, 51, 665-667.

8   Donahue, T. M., Hoffman, J. H., Hodges, R. R. and A. J. Watson (1982). Venus was wet: a measurement of the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen. Science 216, 630-633.

7   Watson, A. J., Donahue T., M. and J. C. G. Walker (1981). The dynamics of a rapidly escaping atmosphere; application to the evolution of the earth and Venus. Icarus 48, 150-166.

6   Watson, A. J., Ball, G. L. and D. H. Stedman (1981). Enhancement of electron-capture of chlorocarbons by iodination. Anal. Chem, 53, 132-134.

5   Watson, A. J., Lovelock, J. E. and D. H. Stedman (1980). The problem of atmospheric methyl chloride. in Proc. NATO Advanced Study institute, conference on atmospheric ozone. F.A.A. pub. FAA-EE-80-20, 365-372.

4   Watson, A. J., Donahue, T. M., Stedman, D. H., Knollenberg,R. G., Ragent, B. and J. Blamont (1979). Oxides of nitrogen and the clouds of Venus. Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 743-746.

3   Watson, A. J., Lovelock, J. E. and L. Margulis (1980). What controls atmospheric oxygen? (discussion). Biosystems 12 124- 125.

2   Watson, A. J., Lovelock, J. E. and L. Margulis (1978). Methanogenesis, fires and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen. Biosystems, 10, 293-298.

1  Lovelock, J. E. and A. J. Watson (1978). The electron-capture detector, theory and practice II. J. Chromatogr., 158, 123- 138.


Recent reports, conference proceedings:

Monteiro, P.M.S., Schuster, U., Hood, M., Lenton, A., Metzl, N., Olsen, A., Rogers, K., Sabine, C., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., Yoder, J., Wanninkhof, R., Watson, A.J. (2010). A global sea surface carbon observing system: assessment of changing sea surface CO₂ and air-sea CO₂ fluxes. In: Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D. Eds. Proceedings of the ‘OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society’ Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, ESA Publication WPP-306; doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.64.

Watson, A. J., Vallis, G. K., and Nikurashin, M. Southern Ocean overturning, controlled by wind or buoyancy flux? Understanding the linke between Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric CO2. Nova Acta Leopoldina NF121, 408, 2470351 (2015).



PhD Thesis:

Watson, A. J. (1978). Consequences for the biosphere of forest and grassland fires. (U. Reading).


Unrefereed, (“News and views”,  popular science, educational, reviews etc.)

Watson, A. J., (2009). The vanishing face of Gaia: a final warning. Nature 458, 970-971.

Watson, A. J. (2007). Journal club: an oceanographer describes a missing piece of the climate puzzle. Nature, 445 463.

Watson, A. J., Brovkin, V, Claussen, M., Falkowski, P. G., Held, H., Payne, A. J., Rahmstorf, S., Scholes, R. J., Schrag, D. P., and Sirocko, F. (2004). Group report: Possible states and modes of operation of the Quaternary Earth system. Pp 189-210, in Earth System analysis for sustainability report of the 91st Dahlem workshop, Berlin May 25-30 2003. eds Schellnhuber, H., J., Crutzen, P., J., Clark, W., C., Claussen, M., and Held, H. MIT press, Cambridge Mass, USA

Bakker, D.C.E. and  Watson, A.J.  (2001). A piece in the CO2 jigsaw.  Nature, 410, 765-766.

Watson, A. J. (2001) Transient tracers and tracer release experiments: new tools for the oceanographer, p 212-222 in, Understanding the oceans: a century of ocean exploration, eds Deacon, M., Rice, T., and Summerhayes, C. UCL press, London.

Francey R. J., Apps, M., Joos, F., Schimel, D, and Watson, A. (1999). 5th International CO2  Conference, Cairns, Australia, 8-12 September 1997 – Preface. Tellus (B) 51 : 149-150

Watson, A. J.  (1999) The global survey of pCO2 (Global Change Newsletter , 37, March 1999)

Boyd, P., Watson A. J., and Law, C. S. Spotlight is on Iron at International SOIREE in Southern Ocean . US JGOFS Newsletter, vol 9, number 4, February 1999.

Watson, Andrew (1997) The Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study; (Pamphlet published by International Geopshere-Biosphere programme, 4pp)

Watson, Andrew (1996). Prediction Game. Nature 381, 386.

Watson, A.(1995) Ironed out. New Scientist vol 147: p 54

Watson, A.J., and Ledwell, J. R. (1994); Update on NATRE, the North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment. Sigma (UK WOCE Newsletter) 12, 4-5.

Watson, Andrew (1993) Iron rule on the high seas. The Guardian, Nov 4, 1993.  2: 12-13.

Watson, A. J. (1993). From atmosphere to abyss; the endless cycle of elements. In: The Oceans: a celebration, ed Silcock, L., Random House, London. pp129-152.

Watson, A. J. (1992) Carbon dioxide: conveying that sinking feeling. Nature 356, 561-562.

Watson, A. J., (1991). Gaia. New Scientist, 131 S1-S4.

Watson, A. J., (1987). Life on the high wire. Nature 326, 651-652.